A number of articles in The Shark Free Zone address the bad idea of designating a minor as a primary beneficiary. Single parents especially struggle with this issue, which is why “it takes a village,” is more than political rhetoric. Another issue parents and family members struggle with is the unfortunate circumstance of managing the car of a disabled child or loved one. Yet, it is even more critical to plan for unfortunate events when you are the caregiver of a disabled person.
As usual, examples often help distinguish bad planning from poor planning but this time we’ll just look at a scenario and the resulting considerations.
Twenty years ago, Kelly and Sean’s daughter, Carrie was born mentally and physically disabled. As a result, Kelly and Sean decided that Kelly would remain at home to care for Carrie and the family would depend on Sean’s paycheck and Carrie’s Social Security Disability Income (“SSDI”).
About a month ago, Kelly and Carrie were involved in a car accident and ended up with a settlement award of $50,000 after medical expenses were paid. Fortunately, neither Kelly nor Carrie was severely injured but the incident shook Kelly considerably. So she and Sean finally had the “what if” discussion about the possibility of something tragic happening to one or both of them. If one or both of them died, who would care for Carrie and what would that look like?
Well, Kelly and Sean have several issues to consider, including:
- Guardianship v. Powers of Attorney. Carrie is an adult and, in Illinois, obtaining guardianship for a disabled adult is a lengthy and costly process. To avoid that process, powers of attorney for Carrie might be useful. The question of usefulness hinges on the severity of Carrie’s mental disability with respect to legal capacity needed to grant authority provided in powers of attorney.
- Adverse Implications of Government Assistance. Irrespective of who dies, if sufficient means are not available to ensure Carrie’s basic needs – food, shelter, clothing, and medical care – are met during the remainder of her life, she may need additional government assistance, such as Medicaid. However, when someone on Medicaid receives an inheritance, they may become temporarily ineligible for Medicaid. So particular testamentary planning, such as “special needs trusts,” may be needed.
- Sufficient Life Insurance. If Sean passes away, the question is then, how much of a death benefit is needed. Also, if Kelly predeceased Sean, who would be the contingent beneficiary able to act on Carrie’s behalf.
- Appropriate Fiduciaries. If both Kelly and Sean die, the question again is who will be able to financially and compassionately manage Carrie’s estate and how would that estate be structured?
Caring for a child with mental or physical challenges has at least one commonality with caring for a child with no challenges: the need for a careful, caring, and protective plan in the event the parent is no longer able to provide needed care because the ability or inability of our loved ones doesn’t change the fact that they are our loved ones.